Inko 0.7.0 has been released

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Inko 0.7.0 has been released, featuring improved garbage collection performance, additions to the standard library, support for circular types, and static typing instead of gradual typing.

Table of contents

For the full list of changes, take a look at the changelog.

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Improved garbage collection performance

Tracing live objects during garbage collection is done more efficiently, and blocks of memory used by the allocator are stored more efficiently.

Standard library additions

The following types and methods have been added to the standard library:

  • std::array::Array.join
  • std::array::Array.reverse_iter
  • std::boolean::Boolean.false?
  • std::boolean::Boolean.true?
  • std::set::Set
  • std::string::String.slice_bytes
  • std::string::String.split

Support for circular types

The Inko (Ruby) compiler now supports circular types, allow code such as the following:

object A {
  @b: B

object B {
  @a: A

Static typing instead of gradual typing

Inko is now a statically typed language, instead of a dynamically typed language. The Dynamic type has been replaced with a trait called Any, implemented by all types. Unlike the Dynamic type, this trait does not allow you to send any message to it to get another Dynamic in return. Instead, you'll need to somehow check the type at runtime supports the operations you wish to perform.

Inko's syntax has also been changed in response to the removal of gradual typing. For example, method arguments are now required to either specify a type or a default value; leaving out both is no longer valid.

For more details on these changes, refer to this section from the article "Static typing, pattern matching, and Inko's self-hosting compiler ".

ByteArray in the prelude

The ByteArray type is now in the prelude, removing the need to import it using import std::byte_array::ByteArray. The use of byte arrays is common, so this makes it less frustrating to use them.

std::mirror is now optional

The module std::mirror is used for runtime reflection of objects. It's also used to format objects in a way readable by humans. Before Inko 0.7.0, this module was always imported as methods such as inspect made use of it.

Starting with Inko 0.7.0, this module is optional and not imported by default. This also means that pretty-printing objects requires you to first import this module. So instead of this:


You now have to write this:

import std::mirror


Virtual machine instructions use less memory

Before Inko 0.7.0, all VM instructions used at least 32 bytes of memory. Instruction arguments were stored in a separate vector. In Inko 0.7.0, instructions have a fixed size of 16 bytes and no longer store their arguments in a separate vector; instead storing them directly in the instruction itself.

This new setup allows for up to six arguments per instruction. Some instructions need more than that. For example, when creating an Array the SetArray instruction may need more than six arguments. To make this possible, this instruction (and several other ones that also need variable arguments) expects two arguments in the instruction:

  1. An argument specifying the number of arguments.
  2. An argument specifying the register containing the first argument.

These instructions then expect all arguments to be in a contiguous order. They will then read the given number of registers in-order, starting with the first one specified.

To help understand this, imagine the following: we want to create an Array with 4 values, stored in registers 0, 1, 2, and 3. The result is to be stored in register 4. Before Inko 0.7.0, the SetArray instruction layout would be as follows:

SetArray 4, 0, 1, 2, 3
         ^  ~~~~~~~~~~> The value registers, each as a separate argument
  The target register

In Inko 0.7.0, the instruction layout instead is as follows:

SetArray 4, 4, 0
         ^  ^  ^
         |  |  |
         |  |  +---------- The register containing the first value
         |  +------- The number of arguments
         +---- The target register

This allows instructions to accept a variable number of arguments, without increasing the size of all instructions.

For Inko's own standard library test suite, these changes reduced peak memory consumption from 27 MB RSS to 21 MB RSS.

Keyword and variable arguments are handled by the compiler

Making Inko statically typed allowed us to remove virtual machine support for keyword arguments, variable arguments, and argument count validations. This simplifies the virtual machine, and makes method calls more efficient. Both keyword arguments and variable arguments are now handled solely by the compiler.